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M.J. Middelburg LLM

PhD researcher 

Tilburg Law School


Annemarie Middelburg is a Ph.D. researcher at the International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT). She holds a bachelor degree in International and European Law and an LLM in Public International Law & Human Rights and an LLM in the Research Master in Law (both cum laude). Her Ph.D. research focuses on compliance with the international human rights framework with regard to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Senegal. As part of her Ph.D. research, she recently conducted a four-month field study in Senegal where she interviewed over 50 experts working in the field of FGM/C. She will finalize her dissertation in 2015.

The title of her Ph.D. research is: Compliance with the Human Rights Framework in relation to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Senegal.

Summary: FGM/C is one of the most harmful and widespread traditional practices experienced by women in Africa. The international community has recognized FGM/C as a fundamental violation of various human rights by means of numerous international human rights instruments. However, there is no significant decline in the prevalence of FGM/C and it seems that the actual impact of the international human rights framework is limited. Through legal analysis, literature research and an empirical study my PhD research will analyze why the international human rights framework has limited impact and which factors influence this impact positively and/or negatively.


- July 2012: Venice Academy of Human Rights
- June 2013: Pompeu Fabra University (Barcelona)
- June 2013: Panel Discussion, Amsterdam
- August 2013: UNFPA New York

Grants awarded:

- In July 2012, the McKinsey & Company awarded a grant of 5.000 euro for my empirical study in Senegal.
- In July 2013, Tilburg Law School (Tilburg University) awarded a grant of 5.000 euro for my empirical study in Senegal.
- In August 2013, the Alumni Fund of Tilburg University awarded a grant of 5.000 euro for my empirical study in Kenya.

Other tasks/responsibilities:

- Supervision of students' bachelor and master thesis
- Coordinator of the course Principles of Law for PhD students
- Providing guest lectures
- Chair of the PhD Council of Tilburg Law School
- Member of the School of Human Rights Research


Principal publications

  • E. Leye, M.J. Middelburg, Female Genital Mutilation in Europe from a Children?s Rights Perspective, in: W. Vandenhole, E. Desmet, D. Reynaert and S. Lembrechts, The Routledge International Handbook of Children's Rights Studies, Routledge, (forthcoming in 2015).
  • M.J. Middelburg and R. Desiderio, Implementation of the International and Regional Human Rights Framework for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation, UNFPA New York, November 2014, available at:
  • A. Van Vossole, M.J. Middelburg, C. Arnaut, E. Leye, J. Deblonde, L. Mergaert and S. O'Brien, Female Genital Mutilation in the European Union and Croatia, European Institute for Gender Equality, April 2013, available at:

My updates

Last amended: 05 February 2015