Research Talks INTERVICT
INTERVICT Research Talks are for academic researchers. Research pertaining to the general scope of the institute and the research programme is presented and discussed. Presentations are in English.
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Previous Research Talks
Previous Research Talks 2013
Effectiveness of video interaction guidance
(25 April 2013)
- Anneke Tooten
- Hannah Hoffenkamp
To evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-based Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) for mothers and fathers of infants born preterm (25-37 weeks of gestation). Method: VIG is a preventive video-feedback intervention to support the parent-infant relationship.
Directly after preterm birth, 150 families (150 infants, 150 mothers, 144 fathers) participated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of VIG as adjunct to standard hospital care. Primary outcome was parental interactive behavior (sensitivity, intrusiveness, withdrawal) as observed in videotaped dyadic parent-infant interaction. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention, 3-weeks and 6-months post-intervention. Additionally, parents completed self-report measures on parent-infant bonding, stress and wellbeing. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, using multilevel modeling and analyses of covariance. Results: VIG proved to be effective in enhancing sensitive behavior and diminishing withdrawn behavior in mothers (Cohen's d, range: 0.24-0.44) and in fathers (d range: 0.54-0.60).
The positive effects of VIG were particularly found in mothers who experienced the preterm birth as very traumatic (d range: 0.80-1.04). The intervention, however, did not change parents' intrusive behavior. Furthermore, results showed positive effects on parental bonding, especially for fathers, yet no significant effects on stress and wellbeing were detected.
The results indicate that VIG is a useful addition to standard hospital care, reducing the impact of preterm birth on the parent-infant relationship. VIG appeared particularly beneficial for fathers, and for mothers with traumatic experiences. When parental behavior is characterized by high levels of intrusiveness, VIG might be more effective when complemented with additional support.
Human Trafficking in The Netherlands: an explorative study on the needs of victims of trafficking
(28 May 2013)
- Conny Rijken
- Fanny Klerx
reported on the findings of this study conducted with Jan van Dijk. The study found that the protection and assistance offered to victims of trafficking in the Netherlands is not adapted to the differentiated and phased nature of the victims' needs. The timing of the hearings and criminal proceeding needs to be coordinated with the time needed by victims to recover.
Ideally, cooperation would only be required after the victim has been given some time to recover and reflect on the situation and has regained control over her/his life, not immediately after leaving the situation of exploitation. The provision of protection and assistance is further complicated by convoluted and time consuming laws and regulations embedded in migration law.
Protection orders in the Netherlands: room for improvement?
(28 March 2013)
- Suzan van der Aa
Many victims of violent crimes, such as stalking or interpersonal violence, harbor a need for protection against the offender. One way of meeting that need is by issuing a protection order, such as a 'no contact' order (contactverbod) or an order prohibiting the offender to enter the street where the victim lives (straatverbod). The Netherlands has a wide range of criminal, administrative and civil law provisions on which protection orders can be based. At the moment, they are at the centre of renewed attention and confidence in their effectiveness is high. This can be witnessed from the creation of new provisions, like the temporary barring order (huisverbod) and the vrijheidsbeperkende maatregel, but also from the recent revision of previously established protection orders.
Meanwhile, there are so many ways in which protection orders can be imposed, each subjected to multiple, rapid successive changes, that it is hard to see the forest for the trees. Especially, since research on protection orders and their legislation is scarce. With an eye on the transposition of European legislation on protection orders it is important to gain insight in the operation of the different Dutch protection orders and the legal provisions that form their basis. In addition, the nature and incidence of protection orders will be explored, how protection orders are enforced in practice, and which factors are related to the issuing of protection orders. The meeting will end with a discussion on how to improve protection order legislation, enforcement and (possibly) effectiveness.
What do we know about differences between crime victims in different victim-offender relationships and what do these victims expect from the criminal justice system?
(28 February 2013)
- Annemarie ten Boom
In her thesis she examines what is known about the characteristics and aftermath of crimes that are perpetrated by offenders in different relationships to the victim. What do victims of offences by strangers, acquaintances and intimates have in common? And what don't they share? What do we know about victims of property offences and vandalism by known offenders? Do they share anything with victims of violent offences? Victims of intimate offenders have been studied quite a lot in victimology, but what is known about victims of offenders on the intermediate relational distance, like co-workers and neighbors? What -if anything- do these victims expect from the criminal justice system? And how do they evaluate their experiences with that system? She will discuss the research project, some first results and some problems she encountered up to now.
Annemarie ten Boom is research coordinator & program leader coaching at the Dutch Ministry of Safety and Justice and currently working on her thesis under supervision of Prof. dr. Marc Groenhuijsen and Dr. Antony Pemberton from INTERVICT.
Previous Research Talks 2012
Sentencing Guidelines in Engeland and Wales
(14 November 2012)
- Prof. dr. Julien Roberts
In this talk, Julian Roberts, who is a member of the Sentencing Council of England and Wales, will describe and explore the sentencing guidelines currently used in England and Wales. This jurisdiction is the only one outside the US to have developed a comprehensive, numerical system of sentencing guidelines. Professor Roberts will also discuss the ways that the guidelines and the Sentencing Council take the interests of the crime victim into account.
Exploring the International Crime Falls; a secondary analysis of the ICVS
(1 October 2012)
- Prof. dr. Jan van Dijk
Victimization surveys have helped criminology to focus on the role of potential victims in shaping trends in crime. In this lecture Van Dijk discusses how potential victims have responded to rising crime rates with improved self-protection against crime, e.g. household security.
According to the security hypothesis the wider use of household security has driven down rates of victimization by burglary. Data from the six rounds of the International Crime Victims Survey covering the period of 1989 to 2010 confirm that victimization by household burglary has dropped most significantly in countries with high levels of security such as the UK and NL and much less in countries with low security such as Sweden and Denmark. This results calls for active promotion of elementary security by the State.
Jan van Dijk currently holds the Pieter van Vollenhoven Chair in Victimology and Human Security at Tilburg University (International Victimology Institute Tilburg). He is a member of the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings of the Council of Europe.
Who is the Victim? Reflections on the Arbitrariness and Elasticity of the Victim Designation
(29 March 2012)
- Dr. Ezzat Fattah
A pioneer in the study of victimology, Ezzat Fattah has authored, co-authored and edited over a dozen books, including Towards a Critical Victimology and Understanding Criminal Victimization. In 1993 he was awarded a Konrad Adenauer Research Award to study first-hand the rise of crime in the former police state of East Germany.
Founder of SFU's school of criminology, Fattah received the 1999 Sterling prize in support of controversy. Decriminalization of drugs, modernization of the criminal law, abolition of the death penalty and of prisons and the struggle for human rights have been central issues of Fattah’s research and social activism.
The Different Images of Victims of Crime and their Connection to Restorative
(1 March 2012)
- Antony Pemberton
The position of victims of crime has shown marked improvement over the past 30 years. The rise of the victim has been associated with the growth of a unified ‘victim movement’; a social movement that strives to improve the position of victims of crime.
However it is questionable whether the victim movement should be viewed as a unitary phenomenon. Instead of one movement, there appear to be a number of victim movements. There are differences between the victim advocates in the United States, Victim Support in Europe, the violence against women movement and proponents of restorative justice. In this paper the reasons for these differences are sought in victim-endogenous factors: differences in victims’ characteristics and the ideal types employed by the different movements are an important explanation for the divergent development in organisations representing victims interests, which in turn influences their policy preferences.
It is argued that advocates of restorative justice would benefit from understanding both the reality and the distortion involved in the ideal types, including their own. This would allow proponents of restorative justice to adapt their practices in a manner that is both suitable and convincing to the representative and target group of the different victim movements.
Experience, Preception and Coping of Mid-Adolescent Victims of Violence and Property Crime
(26 January 2012)
- Gerwinde Vynckier
Adolescent victims are not often subjects of criminological research. One can say that the primary interest in criminology has been concerned with adolescents as (potential) delinquents rather than as victims.
Furthermore, apart from some exceptions, the research that does exist is foremost quantitative research directed at prevalence and explanatory factors or focused on victimization of (sexual) abuse and neglect. I tried to start to fill this gap with this PhD research concerning the experiences, perceptions and coping mechanisms of mid-adolescent victims (14-16 years old) of violence and property crime. With the results of previous research in mind I aimed to gain insight into the reactions of these victims: how do they perceive their victimization experience? Which (cognitive and behavioral) coping mechanisms do they use?
As we depart from the theory of symbolic interactionism, we especially focus on the role of others: to what extent do these victims appeal to others (others from the own social network as for example parents and peers; as well as staff from formal agencies like the police and social services)? And what does the reaction of others mean to the victim? To get an answer to these questions, a multimethodological research design was set up, consisting of on the one hand an explorative school survey and on the other hand in-depth interviews and focus groups with both victims themselves and persons from the own informal network as well as from formal agencies.
Previous Research Talks 2011
Overview of the 2011 Proposed Directive on minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime
(18 October 2011)
- Levent Altan
Despite various national, EU and international action in favour of victims over the years, across the EU the role and needs of victims in criminal proceedings are still generally not sufficiently addressed and the level of victims’ rights continues to differ significantly.That is why the Commission presented a package of measure to reinforce existing national measures, ensuring that victims of crime are given non-discriminatory minimum rights across the EU, irrespective of their nationality or country of residence.
This presentation will provide an overview of the Victims' Directive, it's development and some of the key principles which have directed current EU action and will direct future action.
Levent Altan has worked in the European Commission as a seconded national expert since September 2009. In his current role, he has led the development of the Commission's package of measures on victims of crime. Prior to this he worked in a range of Ministries in the UK civil service including the Home Office – UK Border Agency (developing the UK's border control strategy), the Cabinet Office (establishing the UK's position on European JHA affairs) and in the Ministry of Justice (focused primarily on EU criminal justice matters).
Legal cosmopolitanism and barriers for the affirmation of sex workers'rights: Contradictions between theory and practice
(29 September 2011)
- Dennis van Wanrooij
Fundamentally, the legal system of international human rights law is focused on the right to protection of human beings, not depending on membership to a state, or specific citizenship. It is an ultimate form of what Hannah Arendt called ‘right to have rights’, based on the fact that human beings are part of the same social community. At the same time, political discourses and increasingly repressive domestic laws and policies have reduced sex workers’ self determination, silenced their voices, and denied their right to rights. In addition, it is well-known that the issue of prostitution is dealt with – on the international level – primarily in terms of fighting trafficking in persons and slavery. Furthermore, in the domestic plane the intrinsic goods of anti-trafficking laws have inspired a new anti-prostitution law, which drastically increases sex workers vulnerabilities.
Considering the diversity of ways that one can engage in prostitution, variations of working styles and settings, as well as the diversity of violence and power, it seems very odd from a legal point of view that this is not taken in account when we get to the point of establishing norms. Although sex workers are not all victims, common ideas, beliefs and stereotypes on sex work are still present in society and most norms addressing sex work, and thus constantly reflect their power in national trends of regulations.
The main focus of this presentation will be to describe the difficulties in reconciling universal principals of human rights, autonomy and freedom, with concrete particular/domestic laws, that define sex work – in many ways – as crime, or sex workers – in many ways – as helpless victims. Furthermore, this presentation intends to reveal some data collected by Tampep International Foundation in a European Mapping project regarding sex work and its implications, as well as give a panorama of the Dutch legal framework on prostitution and make an assessment of the impacts of the actual new prostitution law to be voted by the Senate within this year.
Dennis van Wanrooij is currently finishing his Master in International and European Public Law, Human Rights specialization at Tilburg University and works for Tampep, a European Network for HIV/STI Prevention and Health Promotion among Migrant Sex Workers.
To brake or accelerate… The influence of social networks on criminal behavior
(17 May 2011)
- Lydia Pomp
Little is known about the social networks of forensic psychiatric patients. Clearly, such information is of great importance for risk assessment and –management. Patients have an active role in structuring their social networks; They can influence their access to victims, drugs, weapons, “bad friends”, etc. A change in social and personal circumstances in the future may cause behavioral changes that affect the risk (and severity) of recidivism.
This presentation focuses on the characteristics of the social networks of 40 forensic psychiatric patients before and during the time of their offense. These characteristics include size and structure of the social network, social support and the positions of victims and network members with potential risk- or protective factors. The 40 patients were interviewed using a structured Forensic Social Network Analysis (FSNA) questionnaire. The FSNA is an instrument to systematically chart the relationships and personal networks of forensic psychiatric patients in the context of their individual risk behavior.
Lydia Pomp is currently working as a PhD student at the FPC Dr. S van Mesdag, Stenden University and Intervict, Tilburg University. The subject of her project is Forensic Social Network Analysis. The aim of the project is to provide additional information for risk assessment/ management purposes.
The application of intersectionality to address violence against women: connections with and implications for the international human rights system
(19 april 2011)
- Lorena Sosa
The influence of factors such as women's ethnicity, class, migrant status, age, religion, sexual orientation, etc. have a complex impact on the forms of violence that women suffer and the way they experience it. All different forms and manifestations of violence against women (VAW) are shaped by cultural norms and social dynamics within societies. These interlocking structures that perpetuate inequality constitute a complex system. For that reason, the use of an intersectional approach in order to address violence against women, capturing the complexity of inequality and discrimination by focusing on the interlocking social structures that perpetuate inequality, has been gradually encouraged by the UN human rights system. Recommendations made by the international human rights bodies to adopt intersectionality in the analysis of VAW are plentiful.
Yet, ’intersectionality’ seems far from being a univocal concept. Questions abound, particularly about the assumptions behind the notion, its role in research, and also, its expected contribution to the current human rights approach to VAW.
Lorena Sosa, PhD candidate, will present her project, focusing on the notion of intersectionality in connection to human rights views of gender inequality and multiple-discrimination.
The relationship between Peace and Justice in the context of violent conflicts
(24 March 2011)
- Bas van der Leij
- Raphaela M. Carrière
In armed conflict situations, like in Uganda, Darfur, and earlier in the former Yugoslavia, guerilla and terror tactics often predominate. Civilians can become victims of atrocities, displacement and deprivation. The immediate need for peace seems to outweigh the calls for justice. But the price for signing a peace deal often includes immunity for rebel leaders from the charges made against them by war crime tribunals such as the International Criminal Court (ICC). The question put forward is often: can the International Community in those circumstances justifiably reject trading peace for impunity and thereby leave civilians subject to even more war crimes and crimes against humanity?
We argue to answer that question not with a simple yes or no, but to regard peace as a social construct in developmental time, mediated by processes in an intermediate time scale and by events in real time, including violations of justice. As such, each injustice is a building block of a new state not necessarily peaceful. Moreover, in periods of social and/or political instability, the mere violation of one person’s sense of justice, or the neglect of a victim’s need to see justice done, may in fact be sufficient triggers to destabilize any ongoing peace process. Regarded from this perspective, peace and justice dynamically interact together along with many other factors, in a developmental process towards some kind of equilibrium.
At the Intervict lunch meeting of March this topic will be addressed by Bas van der Leij.
Bas van der Leij, Ph.D. is currently working as a Research Manager at the Scientific Research and Documentation Centre (WODC) of the Ministry of Justice. One of his fields of interests is resolution of violent conflicts.
Gluttons for injustice: viewing Western society through the prism of anger rather than fear
(15 February 2011)
- Antony Pemberton
The experience of injustice and being wronged is a central feature of victimology. Victimization by crime in particular involves the examination of the consequences of experiencing injustice, which therefore is a central focus of Intervict’s research program.
The presenter will argue that a host of developments can be linked to a growth of the importance of interpersonal injustice in Western society, from individualism and secularism, the epidemics of narcissism and loneliness, to the increased emphasis on human rights and identity politics and neoliberal economic ideology. Moreover misfortune and bad luck are increasingly colonized by morality and viewed and experienced as injustices in their own right. In a sense then the presenter will maintain that inhabitants of Western societies have become gluttons for injustice.
Recent developments in moral psychology stress the importance of emotional reactions to injustice. The presenter will outline the central features of the emotion most associated with the experience of interpersonal injustice, namely anger, and its impact on subsequent judgments, cognitions and behavior. Taken together, anger at the experience of injustice can provide relevant insights into a variety of societal phenomena and sociological theories. The presenter will discuss the relevance to punitive developments in criminal justice and the emergence of (extreme) right-wing populism, and will offer some critical comments on Furedi’s Culture of Fear and Beck’s Risk society.
A view on disasters: Traumatic stress, or trauma and stress?
(11 January 2011)
- Peter van der Velden
Nowadays, there is a general tendency that collective horrifying and drastic events are predominantly viewed as traumatic events. As a result, there is a strong focus on interventions aimed at reducing event- or exposure-related mental health problems and especially PTSD symptomatology, such as psycho-education and ‘psychological first aid’. However, disasters are accompanied by many non-traumatic pre-, peri- and post-event stressors and needs that affect mental health and PTSD symptomatology.
In addition, in general only a minority will develop a event-related mental disorder (PTSD or depression). Therefore, post-disaster mental health care programs should not only target these stressors and needs but -as part of crisis-management- start with exploring and addressing these issues. Debates about serious human rights violations and international crimes committed in the past usually take a start during times of political transition, i.e. when societies are moving away from authoritarianism. At that time, the new political elites are openly confronted with the fundamental question on how to address the heavy burden of their dark past.
Peter G. van der Velden is a health-psychologist and research manager at the Institute for Psychotrauma, Diemen, the Netherlands. Since July 2010, he is appointed as professor ‘Disasters, calamities and mental health’ at INTERVICT/Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.
Previous Research Talks 2010
Reparations for Victims of International Crimes. The Case of Bosnia through the Eyes of the Population
(9 December 2010)
- Stephan Parmentier
Debates about serious human rights violations and international crimes committed in the past usually take a start during times of political transition, i.e. when societies are moving away from authoritarianism. At that time, the new political elites are openly confronted with the fundamental question on how to address the heavy burden of their dark past.
The issue of ‘dealing with the past’ or ‘transitional justice’ is most often managed by elites, national and international, and the views and expectations of the local populations are rarely taken into account. Yet population-based researches can yield interesting insights into strategies and mechanisms for dealing with the crimes of the past and for reconstructing the future. This talk deals with some findings of a population-based survey conducted in Bosnia in 2006 with funds from the K.U. Leuven Research Fund. It focuses in particular on the issue of reparations for victims of international crimes, its content and its consequences.
Stephan Parmentier studied law, political science and sociology at the K.U. Leuven (Belgium) and sociology and conflict resolution at the Humphrey Institute for Public Affairs of the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (U.S.A.). He is a Professor of Sociology of Crime, Law and Human Rights at the Faculty of Law of the K.U. Leuven since 1997.
The Right to Reparation for War-Affected Children
(14 September 2010)
- Francesca Capone
Reparations have primarily strived to give victims a sense of recognition in order to help them to face their trauma and overcome it. In particular, when we talk about child-victims, the need to recognize them as a separate unit became essential. The children affected by human rights violations have to be recognized as individuals, who are entitled to demand and obtain specific forms of reparations, but they are oftenincluded in a broader groupof vulnerable people and they don’t gain an incisive support.
According to the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law adopted in 2005 by the General Assembly, the victims should be provided with full and effective reparations, appropriate to the gravity of the violations and the circumstances of each case. In particular the presentation will be focused on the rehabilitation of the child-victims which includes medical and psychological care as well as legal and social services. Although the Principles don’t specifically mention the access to education and the need to assure the possibility to attend primary and secondary school for all the children - direct or indirect victims of the occurred violations - it is universally recognized that this must be a top priority in every reparations program and it is probably the most effective form of rehabilitation and reintegration for child-victims.
Francesca Capone is an Italian Ph.D. candidate in International Human Rights Law from the Sant’ Anna School of Advanced Studies, in Pisa. She earned a degree in Law in 2008 at the University of Naples, Federico II and in January 2009 she started her Ph.D. Her research concerns the right to reparation for victims of gross human rights violations, with a special focus on child-victim.
Victim in Different Criminal Procedure Models
(8 June 2010)
- Dr. G.S. Bajpai
Traditionally, there have been two basic models of criminal procedure in vogue: the models of due process and of crime control. These models were proposed by Herbert Packer. Apparently, the victim was never in focus in these models as the emphasis in these procedures was on controlling crime and protecting the accused person. However, an examination into the status of victims in these models could provide us a lot of insight. Subsequently, certain other criminal procedure models were suggested which mainly include punitive and non punitive models, victim satisfaction model etc.
This presentation will focus upon the changing status of a crime victim in these models of criminal procedure and criminal justice. An attempt will also be made in this talk to stress the shifts that the criminal justice systems have taken in the recent past vis-a-vis victims of crime.
Dr. G. S. Bajpai is currently Professor & Chairperson at the Centre for Criminal Justice Administration, National Law Institute University, Bhopal (MP), India. His doctoral work is in the area of victimology and criminal justice administration. As visiting researcher he will be at INTERVICT from 25 May till June 12 working on a Study of Crime Victims and Criminal Justice Policies in The Netherlands (with special reference to victim assistance in cases of violence and sexual offences).
How to Compensate a Victim's Losses?
(25 May 2010)
- José Mulder
If victims suffer harm due to the harmful actions of others, it is often difficult for them to receive reparation from the person responsible. Going to court can take years, or, like in many cases of crime, the offender might never get caught or simply lacks the financial means to pay for caused losses.
Victims of antitrust infringements, like consumers who paid a too high a price for a beer due to the Dutch beer cartel, even have bigger problems when it comes to receiving damages. They have to prove that firms deliberately broke the law by colluding and moreover, that there is a casual relationship between the harm they suffered and that infringement of antitrust law: an extremely difficult thing to do. As a result, hardly any victim of antitrust infringements ever goes to court to claim damages.
Since the European Commission wants every victim to be compensated fully, the Commission has proposed several specific policy measures. For instance, all Member States should adopt a uniform limitation period of 5 years and cost rebates should be granted to victims in order to encourage them to go to court. Surprisingly enough, though, it is hardly clear which consumers are harmed by an infringement of antitrust rules and how their losses could be compensated. José Mulder, therefore, wrote a paper on this topic. During the Intervict lunch meeting of May 25th she will present this paper and explain how economists look at the losses that victims incur, and which methods are available to assess the appropriate amount of compensation.
José Mulder (1978) studied economics at the University of Amsterdam, where she graduated in industrial organization. After working for three years as a consultant at SEO Economic Research she started as a PhD at Intervict in 2006. José will finish her thesis in the upcoming summer
Risk Assessment of Short Term Revictimization of Intimate Partner Violence
(4 May 2010)
- Karlijn F. Kuijpers
The last decades have shown a growing number of studies on factors that put couples at risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV), with the majority of studies focusing on risk factors related to perpetrators of abuse. But what do we know about victim related factors that may play a role in experiencing episodes of IPV? What victim characteristics constitute a risk for revictimization? Although a considerable number of studies with a cross sectional design attempted to give an answer to these questions, little prospective research has been conducted in this area until now.
However, knowledge about these prospective risk and protective factors may be effective in empowering victims of IPV, increasing their resilience and decreasing their risk of future IPV. In this study, we aim to investigate a number of risk factors for revictimization of IPV, using a prospective design. After the initial assessment of our victim sample, follow-up questionnaires were administered after 2 months and again after 6 months. During this presentation results of the first follow-up after 2 months will be presented. The focus will be on attachment styles, how they relate to revictimization of IPV, and what psychological variables might influence this relationship. Possible explanations and practical implications of the findings will be discussed.
As PhD at INTERVICT Karlijn Kuijpers is involved in research into domestic violence or partner violence, and more specifically in risk assessment and risk factors that are relevant for this form of violence. Furthermore she has conducted research into the needs of victims of crime.
Are Victims of Intimate Partner Violence Aware of the Risk of Rivictimisation?
15 Arpil 2010
- Dr. Anna Baldry
Dr. Anna Baldry will address the issue of risk assessment in intimate partner violence that includes a new instrument called ISA (Increasing Self Awareness). This self-reported version of the risk assessment allows women to assess their own risk so they can take actions towards decreasing revictimisation. ISA has been adopted in other EU countries.
The aim of the presentation is to show whether victims are effective assessors of their own situation. Do they tend to overestimate or underestimate their risk? And how does this relate to revictimisation?
This study collected data from a sample of 100 victims recruited in women shelters in Italy. The victims had to fill in a questionnaire measuring the intimate relationship based on the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA) measure, (Hilton, 2009), as well as measures on the psychological status (TSQ, Bruin, 2001). Women were also asked to rate the level of satisfaction with their intimate relationship and assess risk of revictimisation. Dr. Baldry will present the results in a critical way with regard to the debate on risk assessment approaches, their efficacy and use with reference to the use of these procedures.
Anna Baldry is a senior researcher at Intervict, she is specialized in risk assessment of intimate partner violence.
Animal Abuse and Domestic Violence
(18 March 2010)
- Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers
The notion that animal abuse and domestic violence are related exists many centuries. Recent studies in the United States, U.K., Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands report evidence for this relation. In western world, more than 50% of families have pets. They are often valued as members of the family. It is obvious that pets can be victims of family violence as well.
The relation between animal abuse and domestic violence has many manifestations. Abused women reported violence against their pets, reported that their children abused the pets. Abused children, especially severely abused and/or sexually abused children, are more often than other children animal abusers. Animal abuse is often related to other violent behaviour or severe criminal acts later in life. Besides, animal abuse is an early diagnostic marker for psychopathology. Animal abuse is always a signal of a problematic situation.
Marie-José Enders-Slegers (1945), a researcher at Utrecht University, is specialized in human-animal relationships. She conducted research on the influence of pet ownership on the health of older people. She also researched care farming and the role of animals in nursing homes. Her most recent research is 'circle of violence, the connection between animal cruelty and domesticviolence.