International Victimology Institute Tilburg

INTERVICT promotes and executes interdisciplinary research that can contribute to a comprehensive, evidence-based body of knowledge on the empowerment and support of victims of crime and abuse of power.

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PhD Research Projects INTERVICT

Peer support (groups) among victims and survivors of crime

Researcher

  • Pien van de Ven

Funded by

  • Victim Support the Netherlands

Summary

This research aims to provide insight into the effects and effectiveness of peer support among victims and survivors of crime. Peer support (groups) comes in many forms and takes place on several different levels. Therefore, its effects and effectiveness will be studied on three different levels: the individual, group and societal level. With a mainly narrative approach, qualitative methods will be used to fully understand this phenomenon.
The research project is part of an Academic Collaborative Center: a collaboration between Victim Support the Netherlands (Slachtofferhulp NL) and INTERVICT where science and practice meet.

Status

Started: February 2017. Expected conclusion of research: 2021.

At the Frontiers of State Responsibility

Do non-entrée policies reach beyond the limits of refugee and human rights law?

Researcher

  • Annick Pijnenburg

Funded by

  • Tilburg Law School

Summary

The project examines the responsibility of States under international (human rights and refugee) law for human rights violations that occur as a result of cooperative non-entrée policies. Cooperative non-entrée policies are deterrence measures whereby a State cooperates with another State in order to prevent potential asylum seekers from reaching its territory. The project is thus located at the intersection of public international law, refugee law and international human rights law. At a general level the project looks at the concepts of extraterritorial jurisdiction, shared responsibility and complicity but also due diligence and positive obligations. As regards non-entrée specifically it examines the principle of non-refoulement and selected other human rights, and focus on a few chosen examples (e.g. bilateral agreements between Morocco and Spain).

Status

Started: October 2016. Expected conclusion of research: 2020.

The right to reparations of victims of international crimes

Researcher

  • Alina Balta

Funded by

  • NWO

Summary

This research aims to embark upon an exploration of the reparative justice theory and assess the scope, type and impact of reparations afforded to victims of international crimes and gross human rights violations, by several judicial authorities at the international level. While international courts with reparative vision are predicated upon a ‘Westernized’ set of values, they may not necessarily contribute to victims’ experience of justice. Against this background, the research aims to explore the ways by which various international courts aim to achieve reparative justice. The study will propose a new paradigm of reparative justice, which will take into account the various approaches (i.e. Western v. local) to the right to reparations. For this reason, the research aims to assess the relevant international law provisions, pertinent to the right to reparations, as they represent the foundation stones of the (Western) courts. The study will also embark upon an endeavor to explore the case-law of four Courts mandated to provide reparations for victims: the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR), the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), and the International Criminal Court (ICC). Their entire case-law on reparations, as well as their legal characteristics will be scrutinized, in order to understand their approaches to reparative justice. Their local and historical contexts will also be taken into account, to explore whether their approaches to reparative justice have evolved throughout time or have suffered external influence. A comprehensive matrix including a comparative overview of all the underlying concepts developed throughout the research will represent the highlight of the study. By and large, the study aims to put in balance the promises and efforts of Western justice and explore whether reparative justice can be achieved through international courts.

Status

In operation. Expected date of conclusion of research: 2019

The different manifestations of collective reparations

for gross human rights and serious humanitarian law violations

Researcher

  • Manon Bax

Funded by

  • Tilburg Law School

Summary

This research project aims to explore and understand the development and the use of different standards relating to collective reparations (in laws and jurisprudence) by those international and regional institutions mandated to provide collective reparations. The legal regimes relevant to the normative requirements of collective reparations (international human rights law, international humanitarian law, international criminal law and transitional justice) are distinct and appear to make competing claims to governing dilemmas relating to collective reparations. Therefore, the proposed legal analysis will explore the different meanings of collective reparations; for instance, their purpose, form (symbolic and/or material), and the scope of beneficiaries.

Status

In operation. Expected date of conclusion of research: 2019

Website

Gender stereotypes in secondary victimization:

Examining the ‘normalization’ of non-normative rape

Researcher

  • Eva Mulder

Funded by

  • NWO

Summary

This project seeks to increase insight into the extent and the way in which the (non-) normativity of rape impacts observers’ negative reactions to rape victims, with an eye to contributing to the understanding of secondary victimization. In particular it concerns the contradiction with gender stereotypes and the reaction to masculine, male rape victims. It does so in a series of experimental, randomized, vignette-based studies, with implicit measures as the main outcome variables. It examines the role of disgust and the impact of victim demeanor following victimization on observers’ reactions and the cognitive strategies observers adopt to resolve experienced distress.

Status

In operation. Expected date of conclusion of research: Fall 2019

The Principle of Solidarity and Fair Sharing of Responsibility

in the Common European Asylum System

Researcher

  • Lukasz Dziedzic

Funded by

  • Tilburg Law School

Summary

The research consists of a philosophical and doctrinal analysis of the significance and meaning of the principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility in the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). Thereby particular attention is also being paid to individual protection seekers, who, while actually being the main recipients of the protection accorded through the instrument of asylum, often are being marginalized in the discourse on protection in the EU.

Status

  • Started September 2015. Expected conclusion of research end 2019.

Workplace Related Research among Victimised Penitentiary Workers

Researchers

  • F. Klerx-van Mierlo

Commissioned by

  • INTERVICT

Summary

This project focuses on vulnerability factors in the explanation of workplace aggression towards Dutch Penitentiary Workers. A conceptual model is constructed, derived out of a composed theoretical framework in which victim’s personality and behavioural characteristics are suggested to act as vulnerability factors for experiencing workplace aggression. The most important concepts in the model are Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Maladapted Coping Strategies, Type D personality characteristics and Negative Childhood Experiences. In order to test the hypotheses formulated in the theoretical-conceptual model, a longitudinal quantitative study is conducted. In addition, a qualitative study is conducted to be able to investigate personal, sensitive or confidential information and to disclose specific mechanisms and dynamics between the variables in the conceptual model.

Status

In operation. Expected date conclusion of research 2015

International criminal law and the rape of men during armed conflict

An opportunity for justice or additional victimization?

Researcher

  • Laetitia Ruiz

Commissioned by

  • Tilburg Law School

Summary

This PhD thesis seeks to understand why the crime of rape against men in armed conflict, when prosecuted in international criminal jurisdictions, tends to be qualified as torture or cruel or inhuman treatment rather than rape. In order to provide answers, the thesis will turn to gender and feminism as analytical tools and attempt to uncover the gendered nature of international law and international criminal jurisdictions with regards to the rape of men in conflict situations.

Status

in operation. Expected date conclusion of research: Winter 2016/2017.

Resilience among police officers

Researcher

  • Erik van der Meulen

Commissioned by

  • INTERVICT

Summary

Police officers are regularly confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the line of duty. These stress inducing events can have negative effects on the police, such as development of burnout, depression and/or PTSD. Additionally, handling such tense situations requires particular skills from police officers. This study examines whether personality characteristics, specifically trait resilience, play a role in protecting against these negative effects. Furthermore, it examined whether it would be feasible to enhance resilience during a training course and an estimation is made among multiple studies on the effects of resilience in stress dampening for police officers and similar rescue workers.

Chinese legislation on sexual crimes

To what extent is Chinese legislation on sexual crimes in line with ‘modern’ conceptions of sexual violence and sexual autonomy?

Researcher:

  • Guangxing Zhu

Commissioned by

  • INTERVICT
  • Chinese Stewardship Council

Summary

The Chinese legislation on sexual crimes is different from that of Western countries, with regards to, for instance, the gender-specific approach, the legal definition of ‘sexual behavior’, and the criminalization of pornography. This kind of legislation rests on a particular cultural and traditional background, but is it in line with the modern conception of sexual violence and sexual autonomy? Through comparative study, legal analysis, literature research and empirical study, Zhu will try to explore why the Chinese legislator adopted such legislation and the pros and cons of this approach. Finally Zhu will provide some recommendations.

Status

in operation. Expected date conclusion of research: 2018

Promoting the belief in a just world; avoiding secondary victimization

Researcher

  • Alice Bosma

Commissioned by:

  • Tilburg Law School

Summary

This research project aims to further the understanding of the underlying processes of secondary victimization. Within victimological literature, it is claimed that secondary victimization is a particularly common feature of victim’s interaction with the criminal justice system, in the sense that victims often find their treatment to enhance rather than to alleviate their suffering. The main point of departure of this research is the just world theory (Lerner, 1980). Up until now, this theory has been used to explain negative reactions towards victims, but has not yet been brought into the context of the criminal justice setting sufficiently. This project will examine secondary victimization within the criminal justice setting through the perspective of the just world theory.

Status

in operation. Expected date conclusion of research: end 2017/beginning 2018