Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT)

TILT studies emerging technologies and their impact on the individual and society, recognizing the interplay between technology, regulation and fundamental values & human rights.

Completed research projects TILT

"GDPR and China: what do we need to know? (《欧盟—般数据保护条例》与中国:我们应当了解什么?)"

The European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a leading legislation aiming to level up and harmonize personal data protection law across the European Union (EU). Due to GDPR’s exterritorial applicability, the data protection obligations and liabilities will have multiple, in-depth legal and economic impacts on foreign data controllers and processors beyond the EU borders. This includes data controllers and processors who are on the Chinese territory but process personal data of natural persons in the EU.

Chinese transnational corporations with establishments in the EU may have already taken the needed measures for legal compliance. However, many controllers and processors in China - especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) - may not even be aware of the GDPR, not to mention the specific data protection obligations they should comply with in their processing practices, especially when they process EU residents’ or citizens’ personal data in the context of providing products or services via the Internet. The lack of awareness might be caused by a language barrier, geographic distance or resource shortage. After 25th May 2018 the controllers and processors in China may risk breaching the law and encounter large financial sanctions.

Since no official Chinese version of the GDPR is available, this brochure tries to provide data controllers and processors in China with an overview of the data protection obligations and duties in trans-border processing under the GDPR. We hope this brochure may help controllers and processors in China understand GDPR’s major data processing principles and the level of data protection that is expected from the EU community. We hope they may act accordingly in future processing practices to better protect data subjects, whether they are from the EU or China. This brochure focuses more on controllers and processors in the private sector, rather than those of public bodies. It does not provide legal advice on law compliance, for which controllers and processors shoud consult legal experts in the field.

This brochure is structured as follows. First we briefly introduce the GDPR and the key processing principles. Then we discuss data subject’s rights and the related duties of controllers. We go on to explain in detail some common obligations of controllers and processors, discuss their special duties, and the specific requirements for transferring personal data outside the EU. After that, we also shortly present data protection supervisory authorities and their powers, as well as remedies, liability and penalties in case of GDPR violations.

Dr. Bo Zhao, Magda Brewczyńska and Weiquan Chen created this brochure.

Anti-doping project

The EU accepted the TILT proposal for a study on anti-doping and data protection (implementing framework contract JUST/2014/DATA/FW/0038). One of the objectives is to prepare a complete list of all relevant legislation at national level in the 28 EU Member States, defining provisions (purpose, scope and nature) providing a legal basis for the processing (which includes collection and transfers) of personal data in the context of anti-doping activities. Bart van der Sloot (researcher), Ronald Leenes (researcher) and Mara Paun (junior researcher) will be involved in the project, together with many other TILTies for the work on the 28 EU Member States. After more than a year of research, the researchers have now delivered their report. The report indicates that countries within the European Union need to take a number of steps to ensure compliance with the right to data protection and other fundamental rights. Read report here.

New A4Cloud FP7 Project

TILT is participating in the EU funded research project under grant agreement 317550 on “Accountability for Cloud and Other Future Internet Services”, in short “A4Cloud”.

Cloud and IT service providers should act as responsible stewards for the data of their customers and users. However the current absence of accountability frameworks for distributed IT services makes it difficult for users to understand, influence and determine how their service providers honor their obligations. A4Cloud will create solutions to support users in deciding and tracking how their data is used by cloud service providers. By combining methods of risk analysis, policy enforcement, monitoring and compliance auditing with tailored IT mechanisms for security, assurance and redress, A4Cloud aims to extend accountability across entire cloud service value chains, covering personal and business sensitive information in the cloud.

TILT will carry out the analysis of the legal issues that will be raised in the project (together with Queen Mary University London) and will be involved in the socio-economic analysis with respect to user a service provider attitudes and expectations, conceptual modelling, risk modelling, and HCI issues.

The duration of the project is 42 months (10/2012-04/2016) and more information can be found on the website www.a4cloud.eu/.

Contact: Prof. Ronald Leenes

Cybercrime and cyberterrOrism (E)UropeanResearch AGEnda (COURAGE), EU FP7

Duration: 2 year (2014-2016)

The COuRAGE (Cybercrime and cyberterrOrism (E)UropeanResearch AGEnda ) consortium will deliver a measured, comprehensive, relevant research agenda for Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism (CC/CT) guided by the knowledge and experience of the highly experienced and exceptionally qualified consortium (17 partners, 12 countries) and Advisory Board members (14 organizations including EUROPOL, JRC and ERA). This Research Agenda will identify the major challenges, reveal research gaps, and will identify and recommend detailed practical research approaches to address these gaps through strategies that are aligned to real-world needs.

These strategies will be supported by complex test and evaluation schemes. The purpose of COuRAGE is to significantly improve the security of citizens and critical infrastructures and support crime investigators. The COuRAGE approach builds on three pillars, namely:-a user centric methodology, to identify gaps, challenges and barriers based on real-world needs and experiences; an analytical and semantic approach, to deliver a taxonomy and create a common understanding of the subject with all stakeholders; and, a competitive and market oriented approach, to foster practical implementations of counter-measures using effective test and validation solutions. COuRAGE will obtaining accurate, robust and validated user requirements which will be reflected on the research agenda and improve the participation of citizens in the sharing of information and by sustained focus against cyber criminals and cyber-terrorist activities. This agenda will be elaborated through a progressive and collaborative approach, consolidating contributions from the legislative, law enforcement, research and industrial communities represented by the COuRAGE consortium and the COuRAGE advisory board.

Borging Cyber Security (WODC)

Since 1 Jan 2012, the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) has been contributing to enhancing the resilience of the Dutch society in the digital domain. The tasks, responsibilities and powers of the NCSC should be enshrined in legislation taking into account the way in which the responsibilities for cybersecurity are attributed in society among government, businesses, security researchers, ethical hackers and citizens. In this context it is relevant to understand how the legal and organizational assurance of cybersecurity is arranged in other countries. TILT will conduct such a study. The results of this research will be used in shaping the legislation and in dividing the responsibilities.

The study focuses on the embedding of cybersecurity in Germany, Estonia, Canada and the United Kingdom.

Trusted Health Care Services - THeCS (Agentschap NL)

Electronic healthcare services offer great benefits to patients and people in need. Patients that use these services gain peace of mind, independence and a better quality of life. Patients rely on these services for their safety and care. For physicians, electronic health and wellness services offers an opportunity for better and continuous care. For insurers and governments, these services bring a reduction of costs, and for commercial service providers, this is a new business opportunity.

Trusted Healthcare Services (THeCS) addresses a key issue for electronic healthcare services, i.e., trust. Healthcare providers need to trust the patient data they obtain remotely from the measurement devices deployed in patient’s home. It is crucial for them to know that a vital sign of a registered user is measured (not of his friends/children), that the measurement was taken with a certified device, under standardized conditions (e.g., with the blood pressure cuff on the arm at the heart level) and that it is not obtained as a result of device malfunctioning. Patients need to trust the service in general, as well as that the service will properly protect personal data. Standard Internet security techniques provide authentication and encryption of the communication with a service provider. However they do not provide the user with means to control, measure or even know how a service provider will actually use personal information. It is very important to have the mechanisms in place that allow users to trust these services, as trust is a pre-requisite for the acceptance of the services by their users. A user must be able to make an informed decision to trust a service provider on the basis of facts, such as reputation, and security attributes. Appropriate tools will assist the user in making correct judgments.

Healthcare services deal with very personal and private information. Home healthcare services monitor patients and gather data that is interpreted by medical professionals. Health and wellness services support people in need in many ways on the basis of personal and health related information. People in health communities share health and wellbeing information which then becomes potentially available to the whole community and beyond.

THeCS is carried out within the framework of COMMIT, a public-private research consortium. Close partners are the Dutch Universities of Technology, the Netherlands biggest rehabilitation institution, Roessing, the Waag Society, Capgemini and Irdeto.

Contact: Dr. Anton Vedder

Study for the European Commission

Martin Husovecand Ronald Leenes carried out a study for the European Commission which summarizes responses submitted to the public consultation on intermediary liability. The Commission now released the study. It forms a basis of EC's communication regarding future of intermediary liability framework in the European Union. The study was completed with a fantastic help from two student assistants - Bruno Bautista and Larisa Primozic. Maurice Schellekens and Nicolo Zingales provided feedback in the early stages. The study can be read here

Socially Robust e-Coaching (NWO)

Dealing with the Ethical and Legal Preconditions for E-Coaching Acceptance (SReC)

Computer-supported coaching (e-coaching) for the promotion of healthy lifestyles may raise ethical and legal issues that might obstruct future acceptance by stakeholders.

The research project Socially Robust e-Coaching: Dealing with the Ethical and Legal Preconditions for E-Coaching Acceptance (SReC), starting early 2014, will explore, identify and propose solutions for the issues that are raised by e-coaching concerning privacy, autonomy, liability, and the division of responsibilities among the various stakeholders involved. The multidisciplinary research team of the Tilburg Institute of Law, Technology, and Society (TILT) will operate in close contact with Philips research and development teams working on various applications of e-coaching. The project is funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), The Foundation for Science and Technology (STW), The Netherlands Initiative Brain and Cognition (NIHC), and Philips Research.

Project leader:


TILT completed a 2-year project entitled “Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research” (FI-STAR). FI-STAR is funded under Phase 2 of the Future Internet Public Private Partnership (FI-PPP) programme of the European Commission and had a total budget of 17 million EURs.

FI-STAR established early trials in the Health Care domain building on Future Internet (FI) technology leveraging on the outcomes of FI-PPP Phase 1. It became self-sufficient after the end of the project and continued on a sustainable business model by several partners. In order to meet the requirements of a global Health industry FI-STAR used a fundamentally different, “reverse” cloud approach; it brougth the software to the data, rather than bringing the data to the software. FI-STAR created a robust framework based of the “software to data” paradigm. A sustainable value chain following the life cycle of the Generic Enablers (GEs) enables FI-STAR to grow beyond the lifetime of the project. FI-STAR build a vertical community in order to create a sustainable ecosystem for all user groups in the global Health care and adjacent markets based on FI-PPP specifications. FI-STAR deployed and executed 7 early trials across Europe, serving more than 4 million people. Through the trials FI-STAR validated the FI-PPP core platform concept by using GEs to build its framework and introduced ultra-light interactive applications for user functionality. FI-STAR is a unique opportunity for implementing Future Internet Private-Public Partnership in the Health Care domain, by offering to the community standardized and certified software including a safe, secure and resilient platform, taking advantage of all Cloud Computing benefits and guaranteeing the protection of sensitive and personal data travelling in Public Clouds.

TILT  carried out the analysis of the legal issues that raised in the project and had 36 PMs in the project in order to complete this task.

For more information contact: Dr. Eleni Kosta.

PROtecting citizens’ rights and Fighting ILlicit profilING (PROFILING)


Duration: 2 year, (2012–2014)

One of the biggest challenges posed by the global technological evolution to the right of data protection is the processing of such data in the context of profiling. UNICRI is leading a consortium of partners in the implementation of a new project which seeks to outline the main risks to human rights involved in profiling practices.

The PROFILING project has been funded by the European Commission, DG Justice, under the Fundamental Rights and Citizens programme. It is focused on identifying and tackling the challenges posed by technology to the fundamental right to data protection.

Main objectives:

  1. Identifying the risks related to the extensive use of profiling
  2. Identifying the level of awareness of the responsible authorities of the Member States on the risks deriving from the use of profiling
  3. Identifying the level of awareness of a selected sample/group of interviewers in testing partner countries
  4. Identifying the countermeasures adopted in all EU Member States.

Main activities:

  1. A background analysis on profiling and its impact on fundamental rights
  2. A risk assessment based on the results of the background analysis
  3. A series of questionnaires elaborated and tested with the national Data Protection Authorities of the 27 EU Member States and Switzerland, to assess the present European legal framework
  4. Fieldwork in three selected countries – Romania, Germany and Italy –exploring the legal aspects related to the evolution of technologies, with a specific focus on data retention and e-commerce

The final comprehensive analysis will provide inputs for the workshops which will involve different stakeholders. These workshops will help to raise awareness about the threats and their possible solutions. The main activities will be followed by a dissemination phase which will enable the partners to share the achievements gained during the implementation of the project and possibly inspire follow-up initiatives. A final international meeting will be organized in Rome to present the main results of the project.


Cyberspace, the cloud, and cross-border criminal investigation:

the limits and possibilities of international law

One particular challenge in cyber-investigation is that remote evidence-gathering powers quickly extend beyond national borders. Under the rules of international law, states must then resort to traditional procedures of mutual legal assistance, which for various reasons is a challenging process in cyber-investigations. This project aimed to advance the debate on cross-border cyber-investigation by combining the fields of cyber-investigation and international law. The central question addressed in this study is what limits and what possibilities exist within international law for cross-border cyber-investigations by law enforcement authorities. The focus is on cloud storage services, but the analysis applies more generally to Internet investigations, in particular in the form of remote searches and the contacting of foreign service providers to request data. The report focuses on questions of the legality of cross-border access to data under international law in terms of the core principles of territorial integrity and non-interference in domestic affairs.

Researchers: Bert-Jaap Koops (TILT) and Morag Goodwin (CTLD), Tilburg University

Funded by: WODC

Period: 2013-2014

Results: The report is available here on the WODC website


TILT has recently received the funding for a new project called, "Regulating Emerging Robotic Technologies in Europe: Robotics facing Law and Ethics" in short Robolaw. TILT is one of the 4 partners working on the project which will run for 24 months. This is an FP7 EU-funded project (STREP).

The main objective of this research project is to investigate the ways in which emerging technologies in the field of (bio-)robotics (e.g. bionics, neural interfaces and nanotechnologies) have a bearing on the content, meaning and setting of hard versus soft law. We will research the ways in which regulation (both in terms of soft and hard law) may be affected by, and even in need of adjustment in light of advances in robotics, with a special focus on human enhancement.

To do so we will analyze the current state-of-the-art of legislation and regulation pertaining to robotics, and we will point towards areas of regulation that are in need of adjustment or revision due to the advent of emerging robotics technologies. Moreover, we will study the interrelations between technical, legal and moral norms in this field, in order to define what could be the best balance between them, and to promote a technically feasible, yet also ethically and legally sound basis for future robotics developments. Uncovering ethical values embedded into robotics technologies, and ethical consequences arising from their use, is another key element of this research. The most important outcome of the research will consist of a "White Book on Regulating Robotics", which will contain regulatory guidelines for the European Commission, in order to establish of a solid framework of 'robolaw' in Europe.

Contact: Prof. Ronald Leenes


Sponsored by the European Commission as part of EC Security Research Call 2 of 7th Framework Program, specifically for activity 10.3 "Intelligent surveillance and enhancing border security", Virtuoso aims to provide the security authorities with an advanced integrated toolkit, developed around an "open" architecture to exploit open source information for decision support. Providing at each step actionable, rated, validated information. Integrated in an open framework in order to accept existing or future tools. Compliant with legal and ethical issues.

The VIRTUOSO toolkit will be the association of several components that can be grouped into two classes: infrastructural components and functional components. The functional components constitute the core of the VIRTUOSO toolkit and include all the data processing components that will involve in finding, selecting, and acquiring information from public sources and analyzing it to provide relevant information useful to the decision-maker.

The infrastructural components will be developed to ensure the interactivity and the collaboration between the functional components to accomplish a given user need. The main functional components of the VIRTUOSO system are: Information Gathering components (Acquisition), Information Extraction and Structuring components (Processing), Knowledge Acquisition components (knowledge management), Decision support and visualization components.

Contact: Colette Cuijpers

Social dimensions of privacy

Generally, privacy is considered to be a thoroughly individualistic notion. The value of privacy is often entirely understood in terms of individual freedom and individual well-being. The protection and maintenance of privacy is conceived in terms of control and discretion exercised by the individual.

This collaborative project of TILT and the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Amsterdam tries to develop a normatively adequate and practically feasible account of the social dimensions of privacy. TILT staff is engaged in conceptual analysis and in sociological research.

Building on an analysis of the different ways in which the social dimensions of privacy have been conceptualized in the normative philosophical and academic legal debates up until now and on sociological inquiries of social network site users’ opinions, they will propose a new conceptualization of the social dimensions of privacy. This account is meant to enrich and advance the debates on practical, moral and legal dilemmas between privacy and collective values and, to help adapt privacy protection to current and future technological developments, thus counterbalancing the currently prevalent focus on individualistic approaches to privacy.

Contact: Anton Vedder

Privacy-enhanced e-ticketing solutions using location-based services

Location-based services are increasingly available on modern smartphones (iPhones, Blackberries, etc.), and make use of the current location of the device. This feature can also be used for e-ticketing solutions. At the same time, however, location information potentially impacts the privacy of users. The research project will investigate how these services can be employed in e-ticketing solutions in an economically viable, socially acceptable, and legally compliant way, whilst respecting the privacy of the users. The research is focused on applications within the area of public transport.

Contact: Prof. Ronald Leenes


Regulating biotechnology. Towards effective regulatory design

This is a proposal for a 'Pionier' project that is to focus on the regulation of biotechnology. Its objective is to advance theoretical understanding and to gather empirical information necessary for the design of an effective and efficient regulatory regime. Effective regulation of biotechnology requires integration of various prevailing and legitimate perspectives that dominate this new technology in its different applications.

For the operationalization of integration, we draw inspiration from insights provided by modern literature advocating regulatory pluralism. Perspectives on biotechnology, associated actors, institutions and legal instruments, are context-specific.

For this reason, the project comprises three case studies which represent such semi-autonomous contexts: biotechnology in food and agriculture (1); human genetics (2), and patent law (3). These case studies are each informed by empirical material gathered in large part by a senior researcher in the context of a discrete project (4).

The project leader assumes personal responsibility for an integrative project (5) that is to formulate general conclusions pertaining to the effective regulation of biotechnological innovation.

Contact: Han Somsen


Broadening the Range Of Awareness in Data protection (BROAD) is a collaborative effort of Hungarian and Dutch not-for-profit organizations representing a new and an old Member State of the EU, to raise awareness in the area of data protection and information privacy by using innovative means and methods. The partners in the project are: Közép-európai Egyetem [Central European University] 'CEU? (Hungary) Eötvös Károly Közpolitikai Közhasznú Társaság ?[Eötvös Károly Policy Institute] (Hungary) ¿ EKINT Stichting Katholieke Universiteit Brabant [Tilburg University] (The Netherlands)' TILT.

Contact: Prof. Ronald Leenes

Trust in Identity Structure

Mid-July saw the start of TILT's new Alliantie Vitaal Bestuur project on, Trust in Online Identity Infrastructures. The research team will be headed by project leader Ronald Leenes who, in collaboration with colleagues, Simone van der Hof and Thijs Bosters, will carry research into the rule of trust.

Contact: Simone van der Hof and prof. Ronald Leenes

DomJur: Online Domain Name Caselaw Database

The Domjur.nl website provides an online case law database on Internet domain names: decisions by Dutch courts and WIPO awards concerning .nl domain names. The website also publishes literature and commentaries. The purpose of the DomJur project is to further the knowledge about the legal aspects of domain names.

Contact: Maurice Schellekens

Layla - the Layman's Legal Assistant

The Layman's Legal Assistant (Layla) is the name of an Online Dispute Resolution system which is being developed for consumer law as part of the NWO ToKeN 2000 project. Layla will assist consumers in business-consumer conflicts by diagnosing, advising and mediating. As of spring 2006 a Ph.D. student, a scientific programmer and a postgraduate will be assigned to this project.

Contact: prof. Ronald Leenes

VIDI: Law, Technology and changing power balances

This 5-year VIDI project which is subsidized by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) within the renewal impulse investigates the legal protection of "weak parties"¿­ in view of the possible shifts which occur within unequal power relationships, particularly in the context where technology plays a large role. The relationships between government-citizen, government-suspect, business-consumer and employer-employee are scrutinized.

Contact: Bert-Jaap Koops

The use of biometrics as a privacy enhancing instrument

A research group consisting of dr. Paul de Hert, dr. Ronald Leenes and drs. Annemarie Sprokkereef will first make an inventory of biometric applications used in public and semi-public settings in the Netherlands. This will include an analysis of the current legal framework for the use of biometrics and a comparison with legislation in other EU countries.

The central research question is how can the Dutch government learn from other legal and organizational approaches concerning the use of biometrics in order to maximize the use of the privacy enhancing potential of this technology? The present Information on the use of biometrics in the Netherlands is incomplete and often anecdotal. The research will therefore also be based on data collection through detailed case studies and fieldwork carried out at different locations.

The project started in November 2007 and will run until mid-2008.

Contact: Paul de Hert

Identity management in government-citizen relationships

Advances in ICTs increasingly offer governments new ways of collecting, managing, and deploying information on the identity of citizens. These new electronic means of personal identification and identity management are becoming essential vehicles for the efficient and effective delivery of e-government, as government often needs to be able to authenticate citizens in e-government service provision.

Besides efficient and effective service provision these systems offer customer convenience, citizen mobility and empowerment, and the enhancement of public safety, security and general law enforcement. As they do so, new conceptual domains of identification and identity are gathering operational meaning.

Moreover, personal information of citizens is increasingly being collected, managed and used within institutional e-government arrangements ranging from single government agencies to more complex multi-agency or even multi-institutional settings (eg institutional settings that include governmental, commercial and non-profit organizations), thereby raising new questions about the risks involved in the protection and good management of personal data.

As a result of these complexities, together with the increase of available e-government services, reliable and trusted digital identifiers become more and more necessary. This need for reliability is all the more the case as new forms of identity misuse, fraud or even theft manifest themselves in electronic service environments. This research project will explore different ICT-applications within e-government relationships through which personal information is collected, managed and used.

Contact: Simone van der Hof and Corien Prins

FIDIS - the Future of IDentity in the Information Society

The Future of Identity in the Information Society (FIDIS) is an EU network of excellence project which is aimed at investigating the multidisciplinary of identity management in the European information society. TILT's participation concentrates on ID fraud, anonymity, profiling and personalization.

Contact: Bert-Jaap Koops


Fundamental and applied research into the legal, political, administrative and democratic possibilities, barriers, implications and preconditions for the use of geographic and other spatial information in relations between government and citizens, in order to deal with social problems.

Contact: Paul de Hert

PRIME - Privacy & Identity Management for Europe

Privacy and Identity Management for Europe (PRIME) is an integrated project (in other words it entails the participation of science in business) addressing the role of the architecture for privacy enhanced identity management in Europe. TILT is carrying out the social scientific research aspects of this project which concern the demands this kind of architecture must meet.

Contact: Prof. Ronald Leenes

Breaking barriers to eGovernment

The European Commission is funding a three year project to investigate the legal, organizational, technological and other barriers to expanding effective e-Government services using the Internet. The study will identify and explore key issues that can constrain e-Government growth, drawing on real-life case studies. This rich data source will be analyzed to define possible initiatives at a European level to overcome such obstacles, including best practice recommendations.

Contact: Colette Cuijpers

Impact of Converging Technologies on Future Security Applications

This study on converging technologies is a forward looking study intended for practitioners and policy makers in the field of security, legislation, crime prevention, and law enforcement. We use three selected cases where converging technologies may fit in: monitoring and immediate action, forensic research and profiling and identification.

This study takes the technological developments as its starting point. Four converging technologies are distinguished: nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive technologies. We estimated what the developments in the field of converging technologies would be, translated them to the application domain mentioned and then set out to assess the trends in the social and normative impact of those developments.

Contact: Anton Vedder

Impact of Converging Technologies on Future Security Applications

This study on converging technologies is a forward looking study intended for practitioners and policy makers in the field of security, legislation, crime prevention, and law enforcement. We use three selected cases where converging technologies may fit in: monitoring and immediate action, forensic research and profiling and identification.

This study takes the technological developments as its starting point. Four converging technologies are distinguished: nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive technologies. We estimated what the developments in the field of converging technologies would be, translated them to the application domain mentioned and then set out to assess the trends in the social and normative impact of those developments.

Contact: Anton Vedder

De toekomst van de telefoontap

Het aftappen van telecommunicatie is een belangrijke opsporingsmethode. Recente ontwikkelingen in de ICT zetten de uitvoerbaarheid van de telefoontap echter onder druk. Hoewel het beleidsuitgangspunt van de overheid luidt:" Alle telecommunicatinetwerken en -diensten moeten vanaf de introductie aftapbaar zijn", is het maar de vraag of de werkelijkheid zich zo makkelijk laat regelen. Is volledige aftapbaarheid technisch wel mogelijk? En wegen de kosten om dat te bereiken wel op tegen de baten? Volledig aftapbaarheid heeft nog een andere dimensie. In een tijdperk waarin de communicatiepatronen veranderen, geven burgers misschien meer van hun persoonlijke levenssfeer bloot dan voorheen. Het is niet evident dat in een informatiemaatschappij de balans tussen aftappen en privacy hetzelfde uitvalt als in de traditionele maatschappij.

Bovengenoemde aspecten leiden tot de volgende probleemstelling: is het uitgangspunt dat alle telecommunicatie aftapbaar moet zijn realistisch en wenselijk gegeven de ontwikkelingen in de ICT?

Contact: Bert-Jaap Koops

eLearning project: Legal information on the Internet

E-learning project that aims to develop digital learning material for courses that teach students to formulate search question, perform searches in legal databases and evaluate the gathered data. The material developed will be used by several Dutch universities and hogescholen (universities for professional education).

Contact: Els de Groot

Ethical aspects of ultrafast communication

This project was a joint activity of the Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society, (formerly the Center for Informatization, Law and Public Administration) of the Faculty of Law of Tilburg University (TiU) and the department of Practical Philosophy of the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Utrecht (UU). It was connected to the technology research program "Towards Ultrafast Communication" that aims to provide ultra-fast communication hubs by developing a prototype optical chip with a processing speed of at least 1 Terahertz.

The project tried to analyze and broaden our understanding of the ethical questions arising in relation to the research program, i.e., questions concerning the accessibility and the quality of the information that is communicated through the ultrafast network, the privacy of people communicating through the ultrafast network, and the exclusivity of the ultrafast network as an instrument for information and communication.

The project, furthermore, proposed and critically discussed alternative answers to these questions. Finally, by combining these activities with methodological studies, the project was expected to result in a set of general guidelines for the assessment of the moral and social aspects of research projects.

Contact: Anton Vedder

Het gebruik van het sofinummer

Het gebruik van het sofinummer door private en semi-publieke partijen: feitelijke trends in gebruik en normering


Contact: Anton Vedder

Privacy & the dynamics of network technologies in the health care sector

This project aims to provide a discussion of approaches to data protection that are currently available and in use, and to offer an in-depth study of socio-technical complexities regarding privacy in telemedicine. The analysis will result in an assessment of different mechanisms for protecting privacy with a view to health care organizations? data processing needs.

Contact: Sjaak Nouwt


SARO - Globalization and the legitimacy of power of non-governmental organizations

The research program "Globalization and the legitimacy of power of non-governmental organizations" addressed the theme of the legitimacy of the involvement of non-governmental organizations (NGO's) in global governance and policy. Internationally operating NGO's are increasingly concerned with international governance and policy-making. However, notwithstanding the global extent of their impact, a somewhat more than rudimentary system of checks and balances of NGO involvement has hitherto not been developed. The Tilburg-Maastricht research program on NGO legitimacy that started in 2004 and concluded early 2007 tried to provide materials to fill this gap. The program focused on the reasons for which NGO's can and cannot be considered to legitimately display power and legitimately affect the lives of many people, and to be legitimate participants in international governance. It tries to deliver defensible principles and a fitting vocabulary for the discussion and the assessment of legitimacy claims for the involvement of NGO's.

Contact: Anton Vedder

De Screening Society


Contact: Anton Vedder

Personal characteristics in DNA forensics

Personal characteristics in DNA forensics: the right not to know and other choices in legislation

In May 2003, a law was passed in the Netherlands allowing the use of DNA material found at a crime scene to trace an unknown suspect through deriving externally visible personal characteristics from the DNA, such as race and gender. The Dutch act is based on a number of fundamental choices: it is restricted to external characteristics, it excludes investigation of genetic information about hereditary diseases or complaints, or behavior, and characteristics have to be exhaustively specified in or through statutory law.

The research aims at providing an international inventory of comparable (proposed) legislation or regulation in other countries and to evaluate the Dutch law in this comparative perspective. The main question is whether choices have been made or are being made abroad on these issues. The research will include an analysis of how other countries deal with genetic information as to hereditary diseases in relation to the suspects right not to know and what arguments play a role therein.

Contact: Bert-Jaap Koops

Issue of Online Personalization in Commercial, and Public Services

Characteristics of socially accepted network technologies, such as the Internet, support new possibilities to tailor commercial and public services to the individual needs and desires of customers.

Prospects to businesses and public organizations in applying this so-called personalization in online service (and information) delivery are advantages like improvement of the quality of service delivery, enforcement of rights (e.g. copyright), getting to know customers, cost reduction, improved customer relations, channeling of information overload to customers, better achievement of organizational goals (e.g. profit, policy effectiveness), and an improved use of organizational means. Consequently, an important research question for many organizations today is in what way(-s) and under which conditions personalization in online service delivery can be organized.

Contact: Corien Prins