Arie Trouwborst is an Associate Professor of Environmental Law, interested in understanding and improving the contribution of (international and European) law to the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of biodiversity. Trouwborst received an LLM (2001) and PhD (2006) from Utrecht University. He authored various books and numerous journal articles on a range of legal instruments, countries, species and topics. He frequently conducts advisory work for international entities (e.g., Bern Convention on European Wildlife, Convention on Migratory Species, IUCN), national governments, and NGOs. Much of Trouwborst's current research concerns megafauna (large mammals). Recent publications address, e.g., megafauna restoration; wolf management; leopard trophy export quotas; rhinoceros conservation; and conservation translocations. Trouwborst is an Extraordinary Associate Professor at North-West University, South Africa, and a certified wildlife tracker (level Track & Sign III).


Trouwborst's expertise covers a range of legal regimes, including:

  • Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and ancillary agreements
  • Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
  • Ramsar Wetlands Convention
  • World Heritage Convention
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • Bern Convention on European Wildlife Conservation
  • EU Birds and Habitats Directives
  • African wildlife treaties

He has considerable affinity with the practice of international wildlife law and policy, and has been involved in the development of various resolutions, management/action plans, and species listing proposals. Trouwborst has received several grants and prizes, including VENI and VIDI grants from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). He serves on the editorial boards of two journals on environmental and wildlife law, and is a member of various international expert groups, including the IUCN Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe.


Trouwborst has taught, designed and coordinated a variety of courses at Utrecht Law School, University College Utrecht, Tilburg Law School, and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna. These range from introductory courses on international and European law to specialized courses on international wildlife law, international and European environmental law, international law of the sea, the sources of international law, and (Dutch) administrative environmental law. Trouwborst has guest-lectured in many law and biology curricula elsewhere. He has supervised 10 PhD students (from South Africa, Tanzania, Ethiopia, China, the Philippines, Belgium and the Netherlands). Currently, he is Academic Director of the LLM International and European Law.



Selected externally funded projects:

  • ‘Technical and scientific support in relation to the implementation of Regulation 1132/2014 on invasive alien species’, European Commission (expert), 2019-21
  • ‘Developing heuristics for human-wildlife coexistence in the Anthropocene’, Research Council of Norway TOPPFORSK grant (expert), 2016-20
  • Ius Carnivoris: law and large carnivores in Europe’, NWO VIDI grant (applicant & PI), 2014-19
  • ‘Support to the European Commission’s policy on large carnivores under the Habitats Directive – phase two’, European Commission (expert), 2013-14
  • 'Legal aspects of conservation for connectivity', IUCN Environmental Law Center (expert), 2011-13
  • 'Towards climate change proof international nature conservation law', NWO VENI grant (applicant & PI), 2010-12
  • 'Sustainable use and management of marine living resources', NWO Priority Programme (postdoc), 2006-08


Selected open-access journal articles, on law and:

Selected videos, on law and:

  • Large carnivores (2015)
  • Domestic cats (2020)

Recent publications

  1. The vulnerability of neighbouring communities and their investment in…

    Blackmore, A., & Trouwborst, A. (2020). The vulnerability of neighbouring communities and their investment in protected area: A speculative analysis. PARKS - The International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation, 26(2), 79-88.
  2. Finse wolvenjacht - Deur op een kier voor ‘ecodictie’ in het Europese…

    Fleurke, F., & Trouwborst, A. (2020). Finse wolvenjacht: Deur op een kier voor ‘ecodictie’ in het Europese natuurbeschermingsrecht? Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Europees Recht, 2020(1-2), 35-42.
  3. European agreements for nature conservation need to explicitly addres…

    Salvatori, V., Donfrancesco, V., Trouwborst, A., Boitani, L., Linnell, J. D. C., Alvares, F., Akesson, M., Balys, V., Blanco, J. C., Chiriac, S., Cirovic, D., Groff, C., Guinot-Ghestem, M., Huber, D., Kojola, I., Kusak, J., Kutal, M., Iliopoulos, Y., Ionescu, O., ... Ciucci, P. (2020). European agreements for nature conservation need to explicitly address wolf-dog hybridisation. Biological Conservation, 248(August 2020), 1-9. [108525].
  4. Domestic cats and their impacts on biodiversity - A blind spot in the…

    Trouwborst, A., McCormack, P., & Martinez Camacho, E. (2020). Domestic cats and their impacts on biodiversity: A blind spot in the application of nature conservation law. People and Nature, 2(1), 235-250.
  5. Hot dogs, hungry bears and wolves running out of mountain - Internati…

    Trouwborst, A., & Blackmore, A. (2020). Hot dogs, hungry bears and wolves running out of mountain: International wildlife law and the effects of climate change on large carnivores. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, 23(3), 212-238.

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