Arie Trouwborst is Full Professor of Nature Conservation Law, interested in understanding and improving the contribution of international, European and national law to the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of biodiversity. He received an LLM (2001) & PhD (2006) from Utrecht University, and authored various books and numerous journal articles on a range of legal instruments, countries, species and topics. Trouwborst frequently conducts advisory work for international entities (e.g., Convention on Migratory Species, Bern Convention, European Commission, IUCN), national governments and NGOs. Much of his current research concerns megafauna (large mammals). Recent publications address, e.g., wolf management; leopard trophy export quotas; rewilding; and conservation translocations. Trouwborst is an Extraordinary Associate Professor at North-West University, South Africa, and a certified wildlife tracker (level Track & Sign III).


Trouwborst's expertise covers a range of legal regimes, including:

  • Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and ancillary agreements
  • Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
  • Ramsar Wetlands Convention
  • World Heritage Convention
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • Bern Convention on European Wildlife Conservation
  • EU Birds and Habitats Directives
  • African wildlife treaties
  • Dutch wildlife law

He has considerable affinity with the practice of (inter)national wildlife law and policy, and has been involved in the development of various resolutions, management/action plans, and species listing proposals. Trouwborst has received several grants and prizes, including VENI and VIDI grants from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). He serves on the editorial boards of two journals on environmental and wildlife law, and is a member of various expert groups, including the IUCN Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe and the IUCN Cat Specialist Group.


Trouwborst has taught, designed and coordinated a variety of courses at Utrecht Law School, University College Utrecht, Tilburg Law School, and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna. These range from introductory courses on international and European law to specialized courses on international wildlife law, international and European environmental law, international law of the sea, the sources of international law, and (Dutch) administrative environmental law. Trouwborst has guest-lectured in many law and biology curricula elsewhere. He has supervised 10 PhD students (from South Africa, Tanzania, Ethiopia, China, the Philippines, Belgium and the Netherlands). Currently, he is Academic Director of the LLM International and European Law.



Selected externally funded projects:

  • 'Legal support to the Dinaric-Balkan-Pindos Large Carnivore Initiative' (expert), 2022-23
  • ‘Technical and scientific support in relation to the implementation of Regulation 1132/2014 on invasive alien species’, European Commission (expert), 2019-23
  • ‘Developing heuristics for human-wildlife coexistence in the Anthropocene’, Research Council of Norway TOPPFORSK grant (expert), 2016-20
  • Ius Carnivoris: law and large carnivores in Europe’, NWO VIDI grant (applicant & PI), 2014-19
  • ‘Support to the European Commission’s policy on large carnivores under the Habitats Directive – phase two’, European Commission (expert), 2013-14
  • 'Legal aspects of conservation for connectivity', IUCN Environmental Law Center (expert), 2011-13
  • 'Towards climate change proof international nature conservation law', NWO VENI grant (applicant & PI), 2010-12
  • 'Sustainable use and management of marine living resources', NWO Priority Programme (postdoc), 2006-08


Selected open-access journal articles, on law and:

Selected videos, on law and:

  • Large carnivores (2015)
  • Domestic cats (2020)
  • Wildlife generally (2021)
  • Megafauna (2022) [minutes 61-95]

Recent publications

  1. Legal assessment of the Proposal for an EU Nature Restoration Law - R…

    Cliquet, A., Aragao, A., Born, C-H., Bouquelle, F., Ciscato, E., Decleer, K., Dotinga, H., Fleurke, F., Leucci, F., Mauerhofer, V., Meertens, M., Mendes, A., Queffelec, B., Reese, M., Schoukens, H., Trouwborst, A., van Hoorick, G., & Verschuuren, J. (2023). Legal assessment of the Proposal for an EU Nature Restoration Law: Report by the Legal Working Group of the Society for Ecological Restoration Europe. Society for Ecological Restoration.
  2. Megafauna restoration as a legal obligation - International biodivers…

    Trouwborst, A., & Svenning, J-C. (2022). Megafauna restoration as a legal obligation: International biodiversity law and the rehabilitation of large mammals in Europe. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, 31(2), 182-198.
  3. New rules or old concepts? - The golden jackal (Canis aureus) and its…

    Hatlauf, J., Bayer, K., Trouwborst, A., & Hacklander, K. (2021). New rules or old concepts? The golden jackal (Canis aureus) and its legal status in Central Europe. European journal of wildlife research, 67(2), [25].
  4. Editorial - Conservation and management of large carnivores-local ins…

    Hovardas, T., Penteriani, V., Trouwborst, A., & Lopez-Bao, J. V. (2021). Editorial: Conservation and management of large carnivores-local insights for global challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9(april 2021), 1-3. [682444].
  5. Loss of biosphere integrity (biodiversity loss and extinctions)

    Somsen, H., & Trouwborst, A. (2021). Loss of biosphere integrity (biodiversity loss and extinctions). In D. French, & L. Kotzé (Eds.), Research handbook on law, governance and planetary boundaries (pp. 222-245). Edward Elgar.

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