Zülâl Muslu is an Assistant Professor of Legal History in the Department of Public Law and Governance at Tilburg Law School. She received her PhD in Law (2018) from Paris Nanterre University for her doctoral thesis entitled: 'Ottoman Sovereignty and the Mixed Commercial Courts in the Long 19th c. She holds a Master’s degree in ‘History and Anthropology of Law’ (Paris Nanterre) & a second in ‘Public Governance and Diplomacy' (Clermont Auvergne).

Prior to joining Tilburg University, she held a postdoc position at the Chair for 'Globalisation and Legal Pluralism' at Vienna Law School, after working as Deputy Head of the research group ‘Translations and Transitions’ at the Max-Planck Institute for Legal History and Legal Theory (Frankfurt), where she had been a doctoral and a research fellow for many years. She has taught European and global legal history (focus on the Middle East) on Paris and Vienna and she has given guest lectures inter alia in Brussels, Milano, Istanbul, and Taipei.


  • History of International Law
  • Late Ottoman Legal History (19th century to early 20th century)
  • Law and Emotions
  • Comparative Legal History in the Age of Globalization  (focus on ‘semi-colonies’)
  • Legal Pluralism and Cross-Cultural Legal Transformations



Research projects:

  • Decolonizing International Law. Emotions and Glocal Sovereignties in the Middle East in the Long 19th Century
  • Extraterritorial Justice and Cross-cultural Legal Translation: The case of Sir Edmund G. Hornby

Recent publications

  1. Ottoman mixed commercial courts

    Muslu, Z. (2023). Ottoman mixed commercial courts. In Max Planck encyclopedia of international procedural law Oxford University Press.
  2. The mixed arbitral tribunals and Turkey - Negotiating the internation…

    Muslu, Z. (2023). The mixed arbitral tribunals and Turkey: Negotiating the international identity of the young republic under the Sèvres Syndrome. In H. Ruiz Fabri, & E. Michel (Eds.), The mixed arbitral tribunals: 1919-1939 (pp. 65-89). (Studies of the Max Planck Institute Luxembourg for International, European and Regulatory Procedural Law). Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  3. Turkey elections - A story of resistance

    Muslu, Z. (Author). (2023). Turkey elections: A story of resistance. Web publication/site, .
  4. From pragmatic overtness to legal taxonomy of equality - Ottoman and …

    Muslu, Z. (Accepted/In press). From pragmatic overtness to legal taxonomy of equality: Ottoman and Turkish perspectives on Colombian linguistic diversity. In P. Collin , & A. Casagrande (Eds.), Law and diversity
  5. Konfliktlösung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Länderforschungsbericht - …

    Muslu, Z. (2021). Konfliktlösung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Länderforschungsbericht: Osmanisches Reich / Türkei. In P. Collin (Ed.), Konfliktlösung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert : Handbuch zur Geschichte der Konfliktlösung in Europa (1 ed., Vol. 4, pp. 519). Springer Verlag.

Find an expert or expertise